Zongzi is the traditional Chinese food prepared for the Duanwu Festival. It is extremely popular for the aroma of the wrapper leaves, the soft and chewy glutinous rice, and the texture of the filling.
In ancient times, zongzi were shaped as a horn for sacrifice to heaven and ancestors. That was the original model. In the Tsin Dynasty (365-420AD), zongzi were made in various other shapes, and the fillings were meat, chestnut, and red beans. They were very similar to the zongzi that are made nowadays.
From the Tang Dynasty (618-907AD), zongzi prevailed in Japan and even around the world. There is a record of “Zongzi in the Great Tang” in the literature of Japan.
With the increasing number of varieties of food, the ancient Chinese wrapped some fruits in the glutinous rice in the Song Dynasty. During the Ming and the Qing Dynasty, people added bean paste, dried Chinese dates, pine nut kernels and walnut kernels to the glutinous rice and wrapped it in the reed leaves.
In 2010, a Chinese archaeologist found two archaeological objects of zongzi in a tomb from the year 1274 in the Song Dynasty (960-1279AD), located in De’an county of Jiangxi Province.
The shapes and textures of zongzi are varied in different regions of China. There are extreme variations from north to south in China.
Beijing: There are two styles of zongzi in Beijing. One style is entirely made of glutinous rice without added ingredients, which is then dipped in sugar. Another style is made by wrapping dried Chinese red dates into the glutinous rice. It has a soft, tender texture.
Jiaxing: Jiaxing zongzi is a long strip with four corners, and uses a piece of fatty meat with a slice of lean meat in the rice. After cooking, it is even more aromatic.
Guangzhou: Guangdong zongzi has a lot of different ingredients and takes a long time to prepare. Savory zongzi are filled with ham, salted egg or meat, roast pork, chestnuts, mushroom, and shrimp meat. Sweet mushroom filling is made with bean paste, jujube paste, and walnut kernels.